The UN Global Goals for Sustainable Development
Humanity's biggest project
In 2015 UN member states agreed on the 17 goals we need to achieve by 2030 to end poverty, combat climate change and fight injustice and inequality. These are the UN Sustainable Development Goals, or SDGs and are commonly known as the Global Goals.
Achieving the goals in just 15 years will take unprecedented international, political, scientific business and research collaboration.
Universities play an important part through their research on global problems such as infectious diseases, sustainable energy and gender equality.
The Global Goals 'One-stop shop' page
This page has been created as a resource to help you to quickly and easily find where your own research fits into the UN Global Goals framework. The UN framework is detailed, each Goal having a series of underlying targets.
All you need to do is decide which Goal most closely matches your own research area (there may be more than one!), then you can use the simple drop-down tabs below to link your work to more specific targets on your own page.
This is important as it is what other researchers will see when they are seeking collaborative partners, or perhaps when they are trying to identify gaps in current research priorities.
Target 1.1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty
By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day.
Target 1.2: Reduce Poverty by at least 50%
By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions.
Target 1.3: Implement social protection systems
Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable.
Target 1.4: Equal rights to ownership, basic services, technology and economic resources
By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance.
Target 1.5: Build resilience to environmental, economic and social disasters
By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters.
Target 1.A: Mobilize resoucres to implement policies to end poverty
Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions.
Target 1.B: Create pro-poor and gender-sensitive policy frameworks
Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions.
Target 2.1: Universal access to safe and nutritious food
By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round.
Target 2.2: End all forms of malnutrition
By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons.
Target 2.3: Double the productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers
By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment.
Target 2.4: Sustainable food production and resilient agricultural practices
By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality.
Target 2.5: Maintain the genetic diversity in food production
By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed.
Target 2.A: Invest in rural infrastructure, agricultural research, technology and gene banks
Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries.
Target 2.B: Prevent agricultural trade restrictions, market distortions and export subsidies
Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round.
Target 2.C: Ensure stable food commodity markets and timely access to infomation
Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility.
Target 3.1: Reduce maternal mortality
By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births.
Target 3.2: End all preventable deaths under 5 years of age
By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under‑5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births.
Target 3.3: Fight communicable diseases
By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases.
Target 3.4: Reduce mortality from non-communicable diseases and promote mental health
By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being.
Target 3.5: Prevent and treat substance abuse
Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol.
Target 3.6: Reduce road injuries and deaths
By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.
Target 3.7: Universial access to sexual and reproductive care, family planning and education
By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes.
Target 3.8: Achieve universal health coverage
Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all.
Target 3.9: Reduce illnesses and death from hazardous chemicals and pollution
By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination.
Target 3.A: Implement the WHO framework convention on tobacco control
Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate.
Target 3.B: Support research, development and universal access to affordable vaccines and medicines
Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all.
Target 3.C: Increase health financing and support health workforce in developing countries
Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States.
Target 3.D: Improve early warning systems for global health risks
Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks.
Target 4.1: Free primary and secondary education
By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes.
Target 4.2: Equal access to quality pre-primary education
By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education.
Target 4.3: Equal access to affordable technical, vocational and higher education
By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university.
Target 4.4: Increase the number of people with relevent skills for financial success
By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship.
Target 4.5: Eliminate all discrimination in education
By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations.
Target 4.6: Universal literacy and numeracy
By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy.
Target 4.7: Education for sustainable development and global citizenship
By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development
Target 4.A: Build and upgrade inclusive and safe schools
Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all.
Target 4.B: Expand higher education scholarships for developing countries
By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries.
Target 4.C: Increase the supply of qualified teachers in developing countries
By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States.
Target 5.1: End discrimination against women and girls
End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere.
Target 5.2: End all violence against and exploitation of women and girls
Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation.
Target 5.3: Eliminate forced marriages and genital mutilation
Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation.
Target 5.4: Value unpaid care and promote shared domestic responsibilities
Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate.
Target 5.5: Ensure full participation in leadership and decision-making
Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life.
Target 5.6: Universal access to reproductive health and rights
Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences.
Target 5.A: Equal rights to economic resources, property ownership and financial services
Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws.
Target 5.B: Promote empowerment of women through technology
Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women.
Target 5.C: Adopt and strengthen policies and enforcable legislation for gender equality
Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels.
Target 6.1: Safe and affordable drinking water
By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all.
Target 6.2: End open defecation and provide access to sanitation and hygiene
By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.
Target 6.3: Improve water quality, wastewater treatment and safe reuse
By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally.
Target 6.4: Increase water-use efficency and ensure freshwater supplies
By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity.
Target 6.5: Implement integrated water resources management
By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate.
Target 6.6: Protect and restore water-related ecosystems
By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes.
Target 6.A: Expand water and sanitation support to developing countries
By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies.
Target 6.B: Support local engagement in water and sanitation management
Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management.
Target 7.1: Universal access to modern energy
By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services.
Target 7.2: Increase global percentage of renewable energy
By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.
Target 7.3: Double the improvement in energy efficency
By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency.
Target 7.A: Promote access to research, technology and investments in clean energy
By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology.
Target 7.B: Expand and upgrade energy services for developing countries
By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support.
Target 8.1: Sustainable economic growth
Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries.
Target 8.2: Diversify, innovate and upgrade for economic productivity
Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors.
Target 8.3: Promote policies to support job creation and growing enterprises
Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services.
Target 8.4: Improve resource efficiency in consumption and production
Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production, with developed countries taking the lead.
Target 8.5: Full empolyment and decent work with equal pay
By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value.
Target 8.6: Promote youth employment, education and training
By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training.
Target 8.7: End modern slavery, trafficking and child labour
Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms.
Target 8.8: Protect labour rights and promote safe working environments
Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment.
Target 8.9: Promote beneficial and sustainable tourism
By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products.
Target 8.10: Universal access to banking, insurance and financial services
Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all.
Target 8.A: Increase aid for trade support
Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries.
Target 8.B: Develop a global youth employment strategy
By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization.
Target 9.1: Develop sustainable, resilient and inclusive infrastructures
Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all.
Target 9.2: Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization
Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries.
Target 9.3: Increase access to financial services and markets
Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets.
Target 9.4: Upgrade all industries and infrastructures for sustainability
By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities.
Target 9.5: Enhance research and upgrade industrial technologies
Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
Target 9.A: Facilitate sustainable infrastructure development for developing countries
Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.
Target 9.B: Support domestic technology development and industrial diversification
Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities.
Target 9.C: Universal access to infomation and communications technology
Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020.
Target 10.1: Reduce income inequalities
By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average.
Target 10.2: Promote universal social, economic and political inclusion
By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status.
Target 10.3: Ensure equal opportunities and end discrimination
Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard.
Target 10.4: Adopt fiscal and social policies that promote equality
Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality.
Target 10.5: Improved regulation of global financial markets and institutions
Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations.
Target 10.6: Enhanced representation for developing countries in financial institutions
Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions.
Target 10.7: Responsible and well-managed migration policies
Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies.
Target 10.A: Special and differential treatment for developing countries
Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements.
Target 10.B: Encourage development assistance and investment in least developed countries
Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes.
Target 10.C: Reduce transaction costs for migrant remittances
By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent.
Target 11.1: Safe and affordable housing
By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
Target 11.2: Affordable and sustainable transport systems
By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
Target 11.3: Inclusive and sustainable urbanization
By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
Target 11.4: Protect the world's cutural and natural heritage
Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
Target 11.5: Reduce the adverse effects of natural disasters
By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
Target 11.6: Reduce the environmental impact of cities
By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management
Target 11.7: Provide access to safe and inclusive green and public spaces
By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
Target 11.A: Strong national and regional development planning
Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning
Target 11.B: Implement policies for inclusion, resource efficiency and disaster risk reduction
By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
Target 11.C: Support least developed countries in sustainable and resilient building
Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials
Target 12.1: Implement the 10-year sustainable consumption and production framework
Implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries.
Target 12.2: Sustainable management and use of natural resources
By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources.
Target 12.3: Halve global per capita food waste
By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses.
Target 12.4: Responsible management of chemicals and waste
By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment.
Target 12.5: Substantially reduce waste generation
By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse.
Target 12.6: Encourage companies to adpot sustaiable practices and sustainability reporting
Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle.
Target 12.7: Promote sustainable public procurement practices
Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities.
Target 12.8: Promote universal understanding of sustainable lifestyles
By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature.
Target 12.A: Support developing countries' scientific and technological capacity for sustainable consumption and production
Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production.
Target 12.B: Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable tourism
Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products.
Target 12.C: Remove market distortions that encourage wasteful consumption
Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities.
Target 13.1: Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate related disasters
Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries.
Target 13.2: Integrate climate change measures into policies and planning
Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning.
Target 13.3: Build knowledge and capacity to meet climate change
Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning.
Target 13.A: Implement the UN framework convention on climate change
Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible.
Target 13.B: Promote mechanisms to raise capacity for planning and management
Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities.
Target 14.1: Reduce marine pollution
By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution.
Target 14.2: Protect and restore ecosystems
By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans.
Target 14.3: Reduce ocean acidification
Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels.
Target 14.4: Sustainable Fishing
By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics.
Target 14.5: Conserve coastal and marine areas
By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information.
Target 14.6: End subsidies contributing to overfishing
By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation.
Target 14.7: Increase the economic benefits from sustainable use of marine resources
By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism.
Target 14.A: Increase scientific knowledge, research and technology for ocean health
Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries.
Target 14.B: Support small scale fishers
Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets.
Target 14.C: Implement and enforce international sea law
Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of “The future we want”.
Target 15.1: Conserve and restore terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems
By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution.
Target 15.2: End deforestation and restore degraded forests
By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally.
Target 15.3: End desertification and restore degraded land
By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world.
Target 15.4: Ensure conservation of mountain ecosystems
By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development.
Target 15.5: Protect biodiversity and natural habitats
Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.
Target 15.6: Promote access to genetic resources and fair sharing of the benefits
Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed.
Target 15.7: Eliminate poaching and trafficking of protected species
Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products.
Target 15.8: Prevent invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems
By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species.
Target 15.9: Intergrate ecosystem and biodiversity in government planning
By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts.
Target 15.A: Increase financial resources to conserve and sustainably use ecosystem and biodiversity
Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems.
Target 15.B: Finance and incentivize sustainable forest management
Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation.
Target 15.C: Combat global poaching and trafficking
Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities.
Target 16.1: Reduce violence everywhere
Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere.
Target 16.2: Protect children from abuse, exploitation, trafficking and violence
End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children.
Target 16.3: Promote the rule of law and ensure equal access to justice
Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all.
Target 16.4: Combat organized crime and illicit financial and arms flows
By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime.
Target 16.5: Substantially reduce corruption and bribery
Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms.
Target 16.6: Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions
Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels.
Target 16.7: Ensure responsive, inclusive and representative decision-making
Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels.
Target 16.8: Strengthen the participation in global governance
Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance.
Target 16.9: Provide universal legal identity
By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration.
Target 16.10: Ensure public access to infomation and protect fundamental freedoms
Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements.
Target 16.A: Strengthen national institutions to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime
Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime.
Target 16.B: Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies
Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development.
Target 17.1: Mobilize resources to improve domestic revenue collection
Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection.
Target 17.2: Implement all development assistance commitments
Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance (ODA/GNI) to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries.
Target 17.3: Mobilize financial resources for devleoping countries
Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources.
Target 17.4: Assist developing countries in attaining debt sustainability
Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress.
Target 17.5: Invest in least developed countries
Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries.
Target 17.6: Knowledge sharing and cooperation for access to science, technology and innovation
Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism.
Target 17.7: Promote sustainable technologies to developing countries
Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed.
Target 17.8: Strengthen the science, technology and innovation capacity for least developed countries
Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology.
Target 17.9: Enhance SDG capacity in developing countries
Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation.
Target 17.10: Promote a universal trading system under the WTO
Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda.
Target 17.11: Increase the exports of developing countries
Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020.
Target 17.12: Remove trade barriers for least developed countries
Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access.
Target 17.13: Enhance global macroeconomic stability
Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence.
Target 17.14: Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development.
Target 17.15: Respect national leadership to implement policies for the sustainable development goals
Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development.
Target 17.16: Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development
Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries.
Target 17.17: Encourage effective partnerships
Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships.
Target 17.18: Enhance availability of reliable data
By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.
Target 17.19: Further develop measurments of progress
By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries.